The Garcinia mangostana tropical fruit from Asia comes from a tree that grows nearly twenty-three meters in height and can take up to ten years of cultivation to bear fruit. It has been used by tens of thousands of people for medicinal purposes for hundreds of years.
Chinese medical accounts mention this exquisite fruit dating back to the Ming Dynasty (1368 A.D.-1644 A.D.) It is not only claimed by some to be the best tasting fruit in the world, but is also recommended in preventive maintenance of the body. Garcinia mangostana or Mangosteen as used interchangeably here for simplicity is rich in antioxidants, and contains forty-three of the possibly two hundred xanthones found in nature. Xanthones support and enhance our body's immune system.
In India, Thailand, China, and other parts of Asia preparations made from the mangosteen's bitter but valuable rind are used as anti-microbial and anti-parasitic treatments for dysentery and other forms of infectious diarrhea. The mangosteen plant’s astringent qualities are also used in preventing dehydration and the loss of essential nutrients from gastrointestinal tract of diarrhea sufferers.
In the United States, Garcinia mangostana is taken by mouth and is supposed to support microbiological balance, help the immune system, improve joint flexibility, and provide mental support. Some proponents claim that Mangosteen can help in tuberculosis and a host of other illnesses.
It has been long recognized in Asia that the garcinia mangostana fruit along with its leaves and bark of the tree has powerful anti-inflammatory properties, and is therefore effective in treating eczema, hyperkeratosis and related skin conditions such as psoriasis and seborrhea. In the Philippines, and in areas where this magnificent and valuable fruit is grown, the mangosteen rind may be steeped in water to make tea, while others boil the leaves and bark of the tree to make a medicinal drink, or to mix with other herbs to apply to wounds. The roots may be boiled to make a drink for women with menstrual problems. In the Caribbean, a tea made from mangosteen, known as “Eau de Creole”, is used as a tonic for fatigue and low energy states, a universal symptom experienced by millions of people around the world. Brazilians use a similar tea as a de-worming agent and digestive aid. In Venezuela, parasitic skin infections are treated with poultices of the mangosteen fruit rind while a fruit preparation to control fever is employed in the Philippines. Additional studies in Japan and India found that the mangosteen fruit possessed effective anti-inflammatory capabilities. It is also said that the xanthones found throughout Mangosteen have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis, which involve the hardening of the arteries.
While the healing property of Garcinia mangostana is known in many parts of the world for centuries, it is only recently that it is being discovered by North Americans. It is ironic that North America being the first to benefit from medical discoveries will turn out to be one of the last in discovering Garcinia's phenomenal cure for a multitude of ailments. Fortunately, word about this fabulous fruit is spreading quickly via the internet, and Garcinia mangostana is becoming known in countries far removed from where it is grown.
In Western Society, although currently there is no reliable evidence that mangosteen juice, puree, or bark is effective as a treatment for cancer in humans, its fruit has been shown to be rich in antioxidants. Very early studies in the lab suggest that Mangosteen may have promise as a treatment to be applied to the skin for acne. While there simply hasn’t been enough studies conducted on Garcinia mangostana that can conclusively assess its medical power, early small studies in the lab and on rats suggest that further research should be done to find out if it can help with cancer prevention in humans. Extracts of garcinia mangostana have shown in lab tests that they can stop certain bacteria and fungi from growing. One lab study suggested that mangosteen extract inhibits the growth of acne-causing bacteria. However, it has not been tested on people to find out if mangosteen helps acne in humans. In a lab dish, it also showed activity that slowed the growth of certain cancer cells. A small study on cancer inhibition in rats suggested that the rind of the mangosteen may reduce the risk of cancer cell growth in the bowel. Garcinia mangostana's cancer inhibitory effect has not been tested in humans. If there any possible problems or complications, no ill effects have been reported to date (http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ETO/content/ETO_5_3x_Mangosteen_Juice.asp?sitearea=ETO). Incidently, tests have been done on human breast cancer cell line where these investigations suggested that the methanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana had strong antiproliferation, potent antioxidation and induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that the pericarp substance of the mangosteen can show different activities and has potential for cancer chemoprevention which were dose dependent as well as exposure time dependent (Journal of Ethno-Pharmacology: antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line).
As with all plants, allergies may be possible. Because of antioxidant effects, mangosteen supplements might interfere with radiation therapy or other forms of chemotherapy, possibly making these treatments less effective. While this is only a theory, people getting treatment for cancer should speak with their doctors before taking this supplement. Other interactions are not well described.
Although many believe that mangosteen juice may aid in the maintenance of intestinal prosperity, create a stronger immune system, increase cartilage and joint function, neutralize toxins, and increase respiratory health, the FDA observed that the product was being promoted to treat illness for which it had not been proved safe and effective. Hence, the FDA sent a warning letter to one overzealous mangosteen vendor that the product was being illegally marketed. Garcinia mangostana is categorized as food and not a drug. The FDA therefore may never have to prove the efficacy of mangosteen juice.
I myself have tried a mangosteen extract and was very pleased with the results. This happened at a time when I had pain on the underside of one leg deep inside the muscle slightly above the knee area. I had difficulty getting up when I squatted. Months went by without any improvement until one day I remembered learning about Mangosteen several months earlier at a house party and decided to try it. I was skeptical at first, but I had nothing to lose. I have always known about Mangosteen and was lucky to have eaten it many times on occasion. It is a rare and expensive fruit even in areas where it is grown. But I never gave thought to its medicinal qualities because I only ate the delicious pulp of the fruit itself, and people like me unaware of mangosteen's use threw away the bitter rind. Within a matter of about four hours after drinking a half a cup of a mangosteen extract mixed with local fruits which included pears and I think blueberries, I felt a click occur inside my pain afflicted leg. I then could literally feel the muscle in that leg relax very quickly, and the pain began to subside. Three days later I was completely cured.
I have seen the same near miracle result to a friend that had a swollen hand which he could not move because of the pain. Ceasar's hand looked like it had some sort of an infection. The skin on his hand was so stretched from being swollen that I was afraid for him. He played it down, but deep inside I hoped that it was not the onset of Gangrene. He needed help quickly but may not seek medical attention for it. I decided to give him a free bottle of mangosteen. I had just purchased this only bottle from a specialty herb and fruit store in New York City. My wife had intended to sell it for a small profit, but I assured myself that she would understand. The following week I met him at a park where we usually meet and again the result on his problem hand was impressive. His hand was no longer swollen, and was able to move it normally with only a tinge of pain remaining. I had asked him if he had finished the mangosteen bottle, his reply was: "I didn't want to drink all of it... I Wanted to Have Something Left Over for the Next Time". And I felt very happy for him.
Named for the French priest and explorer Laurentiers Garcin (1673-1751), the Mangosteen is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia. Its scientific name is Garcinia mangostana and today this fruit tree is cultivated in the tropical regions of both the eastern and western hemispheres with commercial plantations in Thailand, India, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A number of other countries in both Asia and Central to South America are smaller producers of the fruit. Prized because of its excellent flavor, in Asia it is called “the Queen of Fruits” and in the French Caribbean “the Food of the Gods.” Garcinia mangostana belongs to the family Guttiferae which includes over 800 species of plants. Two relatives of the mangosteen, Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) and Garcinia cambogia have already become well known as medicinal plants. What is amazing is that the mangosteen (no connection with the mango) has never been utilized for its multiple health benefits in North America or Europe despite history and popularity as a folk remedy in Asia, Africa, and South America. Until recently, Mangosteen has been one of nature’s best-kept secrets. Even more amazing is that many people that live in areas where Garcinia mangostana is grown are also unaware or has only recently known about its inherent healing capability. From the time a seed is planted, a mangosteen tree takes from 7 to 10 years to yield fruit. Although Garcinia mangostana is one of the slowest growing of the tropical fruit trees, it can reach 75 feet in height when fully matured.
This fruit popularly known as Mangosteen, Mangustin, Mangostin, Mangustan, Manggista, Mangis, Manggis, and Mangusta has been said to be Queen Victoria's favorite fruit. It is also known as the "Food of the Gods" and "Queen of Fruits" in some areas around the world.
1. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Rajdhevee, Sri Ayudthaya Rd, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. email@example.com
Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.
PMID: 15158999 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2. Gifu International Institute of Biotechnology, 1-1 Naka-Fudogaoka, Kakamigahara, Gifu 504-0838, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
We examined the effects of six xanthones from the pericarps of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, on the cell growth inhibition of human leukemia cell line HL60. All xanthones displayed growth inhibitory effects. Among them, alpha-mangostin showed complete inhibition at 10 microM through the induction of apoptosis.
PMID: 12932141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3. Department of Medical Research & Education, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, ROC.
Treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with chemotherapy has generally been disappointing and it is most desirable to have more effective new drugs. We extracted and purified 6 xanthone compounds from the rinds (peel) of the fruits of Garcinia mangostana L., using partitioned chromatography and then tested the cytotoxic effects of these compounds on a panel of 14 different human cancer cell lines including 6 hepatoma cell lines, based on the MTT method. Several commonly used chemotherapeutic agents were included in the assay to determine the relative potency of the potential new drugs. Our results have shown that one of the xanthone derivatives which could be identified as garcinone E has potent cytotoxic effect on all HCC cell lines as well as on the other gastric and lung cancer cell lines included in the screen. We suggest that garcinone E may be potentially useful for the treatment of certain types of cancer.
PMID: 12451486 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4. Department of Clinical Microscopy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
Polysaccharides from the pericarbs of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn., was obtained by treating the dried ground pericarbs with hot water followed by ethanol precipitation (M fraction). The extract was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column as MDE1-5 fractions. The fractions of MDE3 and MDE4 composed of mainly D-galacturonic acid and a small amount of neutral sugar (L-arabinose as the major one and L-rhamnose and D-galactose as the minor ones) were studied for immunopharmacological activities by phagocytic test to intracellular bacteria (Salmonella enteritidis) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and superoxide generation tests. The results showed that the number of S. enteritidis in cultured monocyte with extract of pericarb of mangosteen (MDE3) was killed. Activating score (mean +/- SD) of NBT test of 100 polymorphonuclear phagocytic cells were 145 +/- 78, 338 +/- 58, 222 +/- 73, 209 +/- 77, 211 +/- 63, 372 +/- 19, 369 +/- 20, 355 +/- 34 in normal saline control, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), MDE3, MDE4, indomethacin (I), PMA + MDE3, PMA + MDE4 and PMA + I, respectively. Superoxide generation test was also done by color reduction of cytochrome c. Both MDE3 and MDE4 stimulate superoxide production. The number of S. enteritidis in cultured monocyte with extract of pericarb of mangosteen was killed. This paper suggests that polysaccharides in the extract can stimulate phagocytic cells and kill intracellular bacteria (S. enteritidis).
PMID: 9347663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5. Gifu International Institute of Biotechnology, 1-1 Naka-Fudogaoka, Kakamigahara, Gifu 504-0838, Japan. email@example.com
Our previous study has shown that alpha-mangostin, a xanthone from the pericarps of mangosteen, induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in HL60 cells. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis induced by alpha-mangostin in HL60 cells. Alpha-mangostin-treated HL60 cells demonstrated caspase-9 and -3 activation but not -8, which leads us to assume that alpha-mangostin may mediate the mitochondrial pathway in the apoptosis. Parameters of mitochondrial dysfunction including swelling, loss of membrane potential (deltapsim), decrease in intracellular ATP, ROS accumulation, and cytochrome c/AIF release, were observed within 1 or 2 h after the treatment. On the other hand, alpha-mangostin-treatment did not affect expression of bcl-2 family proteins and activation of MAP kinases. These findings indicate that alpha-mangostin preferentially targets mitochondria in the early phase, resulting in indication of apoptosis in HL60 cells. Furthermore, we examined the structure-activity relationship between xanthone derivatives including alpha-mangostin and the potency of deltapsim-loss in HL60 cells. Interestingly, replacement of hydroxyl group by methoxy group remarkably decreased its potency. It was also shown that the cytotoxicity substantially correlated with deltapsim decrease. These results indicate that alpha-mangostin and its analogs would be candidates for preventive and therapeutic application for cancer treatment.
PMID: 15498656 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6. Department of Pharmaceutical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
The fruit hull of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L. has been used as a Thai indigenous medicine for many years. However, its mechanism of action as a medicine has not been elucidated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of mangosteen extracts (100% ethanol, 70% ethanol, 40% ethanol and water) on histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. We found that the 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells with greater potency than the water extract of Rubus suavissimus that has been used as an anti-allergy crude drug in Japan. All extracts of mangosteen potently inhibited A23187-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in C6 rat glioma cells, while the water extract of Rubus suavissimus had no effect. The 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen inhibited the prostaglandin E2 synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner with relatively lower concentrations than the histamine release. In addition, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions in rats were significantly inhibited by this ethanol extract as well as by the water extract of Rubus suavissimus. These results suggest that the 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen has potent inhibitory activities of both histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis.
PMID: 12230104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7. Tumor Pathology Division, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether crude alpha-mangostin (a major xanthone derivative in mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana)) has short-term chemopreventive effects on putative preneoplastic lesions involved in rat colon carcinogenesis. The crude preparation was obtained by simple recrystallization of an ethylacetate extract of mangosteen pericarps. A total of 33 five-week-old male F344 rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups. Rats in groups 1-3 were given a subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)(40 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks. Starting one week before the first injection of DMH, rats in groups 2 and 3 were fed a diet containing 0.02% and 0.05% crude alpha-mangostin, respectively, for 5 weeks. Rats in group 4 also received the diet containing 0.05% crude alpha-mangostin, while rats in group 5 served as untreated controls. The experiment was terminated 5 weeks after the start. Dietary administration of crude alpha-mangostin at both doses significantly inhibited the induction and/or development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (P<0.05 for 0.02% crude alpha-mangostin, P<0.01 for 0.05% crude alpha-mangostin), when compared to the DMH-treated group (group 1). Moreover, treatment of rats with 0.05% crude alpha-mangostin significantly decreased dysplastic foci (DF) (P<0.05) and beta-catenin accumulated crypts (BCAC) (P<0.05), to below the group 1 values. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indices of colon epithelium and focal lesions in groups 2 and 3 were also significantly lower than in group 1 and this effect occurred in a dose dependent manner of the crude alpha-mangostin. This finding that crude alpha-mangostin has potent chemopreventive effects in our short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay system suggests that longer exposure might result in suppression of tumor development.
PMID: 15546251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8. Graduate Institute of Biomedical and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, 300 University Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, ROC.
The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn (Guttiferae) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in Southeast Asia. Two xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostins, were isolated from the fruit hull of G. mangostana, and both significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and PGE(2) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The IC(50) values for the inhibition of NO production by alpha- and gamma-mangostins were 12.4 and 10.1muM, respectively. After iNOS enzyme activity was stimulated by LPS for 12h, treatment with either alpha- or gamma-mangostin at 5mug/ml (12.2 and 12.6muM, respectively) for 24h did not significantly inhibit NO production. The data show that the inhibitory activities of alpha- and gamma-mangostins are not due to direct inhibition of iNOS enzyme activity. On the other hand, expression of iNOS was inhibited by alpha- and gamma-mangostins in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, but not by COX-2. However, the level of PGE(2) production was reduced by the two xanthones. In an in vivo study, alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited mice carrageenan-induced paw edema. In conclusion, alpha- and gamma-mangostins from G. mangostana are bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory effects.
9. Gifu International Institute of Biotechnology, 1-1 Naka-Fudogaoka, Kakamigahara, Gifu 504-0838, Japan.
alpha-Mangostin, a xanthone from the pericarps of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.), was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. The number of viable cells was consistently decreased by the treatment with alpha-mangostin at more than 20 microM. The cytotoxic effect of 20 microM alpha-mangostin was found to be mainly due to apoptosis, as indicated by morphological findings. Western blotting, the results of an apoptosis inhibition assay using caspase inhibitors, and the examination of caspase activity did not demonstrate the activation of any of the caspases tested. However, endonuclease-G released from mitochondria with the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential was shown. The levels of phospho-Erk1/2 were increased in the early phase until 1h after the start of treatment and thereafter decreased, and increased again in the late phase. On the other hand, the level of phospho-Akt was sharply reduced with the process of apoptosis after 6h of treatment. Interestingly, the level of microRNA-143, which negatively regulates Erk5 at translation, gradually increased until 24h following the start of treatment. We also examined the synergistic growth suppression in DLD-1 cells by the combined treatment of the cells with alpha-mangostin and 5-FU which is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal adenocarcinoma. The co-treatment with alpha-mangostin and 5-FU, both at 2.5 microM, augmented growth inhibition compared with the treatment with 5 microM of alpha-mangostin or 5 microM 5-FU alone. These findings indicate unique mechanisms of alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis and its action as an effective chemosensitizer.
PMID: 17553685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
10. Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of various extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn., GM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four extracts: water, 50% ethanol, 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate, were used. The antioxidative activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay at extract concentrations of 1, 10, 50 and 100 microg/ml. Based on the free radical scavenging activity of the extracts, two (water and 50% ethanol) were selected for their protective activity in NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress and for cell viability using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. RESULTS: All extracts exhibited antioxidative activity. The water and 50% ethanol extracts showed high free-radical scavenging activity with IC(50) values of 34.98 +/- 2.24 and 30.76 +/- 1.66 microg/ml, respectively. Both water and 50% ethanol extracts exhibited neuroprotective activity on NG108-15 cells. The highest activity was observed at the concentration of 50 microg/ml for both the water and 50% ethanol extracts. For cytotoxicity test, none of the extracts was toxic to the cells except at the high concentration of 100 microg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the water and 50% ethanol extracts from the fruit hull of GM may be potent neuroprotectants.
11. Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels, plaque index (PI) and papillary bleeding index (PBI) in gingivitis subjects and the recurrence of these parameters after periodontal treatment. METHODS: Sixty subjects who were diagnosed as having mild or moderate chronic gingivitis were randomly distributed into herbal or placebo mouthwash groups. On day 1, all parameters were recorded. Subjects rinsed with the assigned mouthwash and VSC was measured at 30 min and 3 h post-rinsing. For the following 2 weeks, subjects practiced their usual oral hygiene and rinsed with the assigned mouthwash twice daily after tooth brushing. On day 15, parameters were recorded. In the 4-week washout period that followed, subjects received scaling and polishing. After another baseline examination, they were re-randomized into the herbal or placebo group and rinsed with mouthwash for 2 weeks. All parameters were re-evaluated on day 15. RESULTS: All parameters were significantly different compared to baseline in both groups at 30 min, 3 h and day 15 (p < 0.05). When compared between groups, VSC was significantly different at day 15 (p < 0.05). After scaling, poloshing and rinsing with mouthwash for 2 weeks, PI and PBI were significantly different compared to baseline (p < 0.05) while VSC was not (p > 0.05). When compared between groups, VSC was significantly different (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of G. mangostana may be used as an adjunct in treating oral malodor.
PMID: 17274236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
12 .Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan. email@example.com
alpha-Mangostin, isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana L., was found to be active against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with MIC values of 6.25 and 6.25 to 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. Our studies showed synergism between alpha-mangostin and gentamicin (GM) against VRE, and alpha-mangostin and vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) against MRSA. Further studies showed partial synergism between alpha-mangostin and commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin and minocycline. These findings suggested that alpha-mangostin alone or in combination with GM against VRE and in combination with VCM against MRSA might be useful in controlling VRE and MRSA infections.
PMID: 15830842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
I would like to end this web page on a different note and that is by announcing...
Coming soon Mangosteen Recipes! We will show you how to cook using pure mangosteen juice. Stay tuned.
1. Mangosteen Steak Sauce for Sauteing or Grilling Delicious Ribs, Sirloin, Churrasco, etc.
2. Mangosteen Glazed Ham
3. Mangosteen Sauteed Shrimp with sweet Red & Green Peppers
4. Mangosteen Chicken; several varieties
5. Mangosteen Fish; broiled, sweet & sour, and others
6. Mangosteen Colada, and more
Thank you again for visiting us. We hope you will visit often. This is Joseph Routis saying goodbye and a good day for now.
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